Umuyoboro wubucuruzi wububiko bwiza

Amavu n'amavuko

Pande ikozwe mubice bitatu cyangwa byinshi byoroheje byimbaho ​​bifatanye hamwe nibiti.Buri gice cyibiti, cyangwa ply, mubisanzwe byerekanwe nintete zacyo zigenda kumurongo ugana kurwego rwegeranye kugirango ugabanye kugabanuka no kunoza imbaraga zicyiciro cyarangiye.Amashanyarazi menshi akanda mumabati manini, aringaniye akoreshwa mubwubatsi.Ibindi bice bya firime birashobora kubumbwa muburyo bworoshye cyangwa buvanze kugirango bikoreshwe mubikoresho, ubwato, nindege.

Gukoresha ibiti bito cyane nk'uburyo bwo kubaka byatangiye ahagana mu mwaka wa 1500 mbere ya Yesu, ubwo abanyabukorikori b'Abanyamisiri bahambaga ibice bito by'ibiti byijimye bya ebony hanze y'isanduku y'amasederi yabonetse mu mva y'umwami Tut-Ankh-Amon.Ubu buhanga bwaje gukoreshwa n'Abagereki n'Abaroma mu gukora ibikoresho byiza n'ibindi bintu byiza.Mu myaka ya 1600, ubuhanga bwo gushariza ibikoresho hamwe nuduce duto twibiti byamenyekanye nko kubaha, kandi ibice ubwabyo byamenyekanye nka veneers.

Kugeza mu mpera za 1700, ibice bya shitingi byaciwe n'intoki.Mu 1797, Umwongereza Sir Samuel Bentham yasabye patenti zikubiyemo imashini nyinshi kugirango zibyare.Mu gusaba ipatanti, yasobanuye igitekerezo cyo gutwika ibice byinshi bya veneer hamwe na kole kugirango bibe igice kinini - ibisobanuro byambere byibyo twita pani.

Nubwo iryo terambere ryateye imbere, byatwaye indi myaka ijana mbere yuko abamotari bamenetse basanga ibyo bakora mubucuruzi hanze yinganda zikora ibikoresho.Ahagana mu 1890, amashyamba yanduye yakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu kubaka imiryango.Kubera ko icyifuzo cyariyongereye, ibigo byinshi byatangiye gukora impapuro zikozwe mu biti byinshi, bitari imiryango gusa, ahubwo binakoreshwa mu modoka za gari ya moshi, bisi, no mu ndege.Nubwo iyi mikoreshereze yiyongereye, igitekerezo cyo gukoresha "ishyamba ryometseho," nkuko abanyabukorikori bamwe babise urwenya, byatanze ishusho mbi kubicuruzwa.Kurwanya iyi shusho, abakora ibiti byometseho ibiti bahuye barangije bahitamo ijambo "pani" kugirango basobanure ibikoresho bishya.

Mu 1928, muri Amerika hashyizweho amabati ya pani ya metero 4 na metero 1,2 na metero 2,4 m.Mu myaka mirongo yakurikiyeho, uburyo bwiza bwo gufata neza hamwe nuburyo bushya bwo gukora bwatumaga pani ikoreshwa muburyo butandukanye bwa porogaramu.Uyu munsi, pani yasimbuye ibiti byaciwe mu bikorwa byinshi byo kubaka, kandi gukora pani byahindutse miliyari y'amadorari, inganda ku isi.

Ibikoresho bito

Ibice byo hanze bya pani bizwi nkisura ninyuma.Isura nubuso bugomba gukoreshwa cyangwa kugaragara, mugihe inyuma ikomeza kudakoreshwa cyangwa guhishwa.Igice cyo hagati kizwi nkibyingenzi.Muri firime ifite plaque eshanu cyangwa zirenga, ibice hagati-bizwi bizwi nka crossbands.

Pande irashobora gukorwa mubiti, ibiti byoroshye, cyangwa guhuza byombi.Ibiti bimwe bisanzwe birimo ivu, maple, mahogany, igiti, nicyayi.Igiti cyoroshye cyane gikoreshwa mugukora pani muri Reta zunzubumwe zamerika ni Douglas fir, nubwo hakoreshwa ubwoko bwinshi bwa pinusi, imyerezi, ibiti, ibiti bitukura.

Pande ikomatanya ifite intoki ikozwe mubice cyangwa ibiti bikomeye byahujwe kuruhande.Byarangiye hamwe na pane ya firimu mumaso ninyuma.Pande ikomatanya ikoreshwa aho hakenewe impapuro zibyibushye cyane.

Ubwoko bwa adhesive ikoreshwa muguhuza ibice byimbaho ​​hamwe biterwa na progaramu yihariye ya pani yarangiye.Amabati ya pome ya Softwood yagenewe gushyirwaho hanze yimiterere ubusanzwe akoresha resin ya fenol-formaldehyde nkibifata kubera imbaraga zidasanzwe no kurwanya ubushuhe.Amabati ya softwood yagenewe gushyirwaho imbere yimiterere arashobora gukoresha proteine ​​yamaraso cyangwa proteine ​​ya soya ya soya, nubwo amabati menshi yimbere yimbere yakozwe hamwe na resin imwe ya fenol-formaldehyde ikoreshwa kumpapuro zo hanze.Amashanyarazi ya Hardwood akoreshwa mubikorwa byimbere no mubwubatsi bwibikoresho bisanzwe bikozwe na urea-formaldehyde resin.

Porogaramu zimwe zisaba impapuro za pani zifite urwego ruto rwa plastiki, ibyuma, cyangwa resin-yatewe impapuro cyangwa igitambaro gifatanye haba mumaso cyangwa inyuma (cyangwa byombi) kugirango bitange isura yinyuma irwanya ubushuhe nubushuhe cyangwa kunoza irangi- gufata imitungo.Pani nkiyi yitwa pande yuzuye kandi ikoreshwa cyane mubwubatsi, ubwikorezi, ninganda zubuhinzi.

Izindi mpapuro za pani zirashobora gushyirwaho irangi ryamazi kugirango isura igaragara neza, cyangwa irashobora kuvurwa hakoreshejwe imiti itandukanye kugirango irusheho gukongeza umuriro cyangwa kurwanya kwangirika.

Ibyiciro bya Plywood no Gutanga amanota

Hano hari ibyiciro bibiri bigari bya pani, buri kimwe na sisitemu yacyo yo gutanga amanota.

Icyiciro kimwe kizwi nkubwubatsi ninganda.Amashanyarazi muri iki cyiciro akoreshwa cyane cyane ku mbaraga zabo kandi akapimwa nubushobozi bwabo bwo kwerekana ndetse n amanota ya venine akoreshwa mumaso no mumugongo.Ubushobozi bwo kumurika bushobora kuba imbere cyangwa hanze, bitewe n'ubwoko bwa kole.Icyiciro cya Veneer gishobora kuba N, A, B, C, cyangwa D. N urwego rufite inenge nke cyane, mugihe D urwego rushobora kugira ipfundo ryinshi kandi rigabanijwe.Kurugero, pani ikoreshwa mugutaka munzu ihabwa "CD y'imbere".Ibi bivuze ko ifite C isura ifite D inyuma, kandi kole ikwiriye gukoreshwa ahantu harinzwe.Isahani y'imbere yubwubatsi bwose na pani yinganda bikozwe mubyiciro C cyangwa D, uko byagenda kose.

Ibindi byiciro bya pani bizwi nkibiti bikomeye kandi bishushanya.Amashanyarazi muri iki cyiciro akoreshwa cyane cyane kubigaragara kandi ashyirwa mubyiciro bikurikirana kugirango bigabanye guhangana nubushuhe nka Tekinike (Inyuma), Ubwoko bwa I (Inyuma), Ubwoko bwa II (Imbere), nubwoko bwa III (Imbere).Mu maso habo usanga nta nenge bafite.

Ingano

Amabati ya firime afite ubunini kuva.06 muri (1,6 mm) kugeza 3.0 muri (76 mm).Umubyimba ukunze kugaragara uri muri 0,25 muri (6.4 mm) kugeza 0,75 muri (19.0 mm).Nubwo intangiriro, imirongo, hamwe nisura ninyuma yurupapuro rwa pani birashobora kuba bikozwe mubyerekezo bitandukanye, ubunini bwa buri bugomba kuringaniza hagati.Kurugero, isura ninyuma bigomba kuba bifite ubunini bungana.Mu buryo nk'ubwo, hejuru no hepfo yambukiranya imipaka igomba kuba ingana.

Ingano ikunze kugaragara kumpapuro za pani zikoreshwa mubwubatsi ni metero 4 (1,2 m) z'ubugari na metero 8 z'uburebure.Ubundi bugari busanzwe ni metero 3 (0,9 m) na metero 5 (1.5 m).Uburebure buratandukanye kuva kuri metero 8 (2,4 m) kugeza kuri 12 (3,6 m) muri metero 1 (0.3 m) kwiyongera.Porogaramu zidasanzwe nko kubaka ubwato zishobora gusaba impapuro nini.

GukoraInzira

Ibiti byakoreshwaga mu gukora pani ni bito muri diametre kuruta ibyakoreshwaga mu biti.Mubihe byinshi, byatewe kandi bigakurwa mubice bifitwe na societe ya pande.Utu turere turacungwa neza kugirango ibiti bikure kandi bigabanye kwangirika kw’udukoko cyangwa umuriro.

Dore urutonde rusanzwe rwibikorwa byo gutunganya ibiti muri metero 4 kuri metero 8 (1,2 m na 2,4 m) impapuro za pani:

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Ibiti byabanje gusohoka hanyuma bigabanywa mubice bya peler.Kugirango ugabanye uduce mo imirongo ya veneer, babanza gushiramo hanyuma bagashwanyaguzwa.

Gutema ibiti

1 Ibiti byatoranijwe mu gace birangwa nkaho byiteguye gutemwa, cyangwa gutemwa.Gutema birashobora gukorwa hamwe na lisansi ikoreshwa na lisansi cyangwa hamwe na shitingi nini ya hydraulic yashyizwe imbere yimodoka yibiziga byitwa fellers.Ibihimba bivanwa mubiti byaguye bifite urunigi.

2 Igiti cyaciwe ibiti, cyangwa ibiti, bikururwa ahantu hapakirwa n'ibinyabiziga bifite ibiziga byitwa skidders.Ibiti byaciwe mu burebure kandi bipakirwa mu gikamyo kugira ngo bigere ku ruganda rwa pani, aho bishyirwa mu birundo birebire bizwi ku izina rya logi.

Gutegura ibiti

3 Nkuko ibikenerwa bikenewe, batoragurwa mubiti byimbaho ​​bakoresheje imizigo irambiwe na reberi hanyuma bagashyirwa kuri convoyeur yumunyururu ibazana kumashini itangira.Iyi mashini ikuraho igishishwa, haba hamwe nuruziga rwinyo rwinyo rusya cyangwa hamwe nindege zamazi yumuvuduko mwinshi, mugihe igiti kizunguruka buhoro buhoro hafi yacyo.

4 Ibiti byaciwe byajyanwe mu ruganda kuri convoyeur urunigi aho uruziga runini ruzengurutse rugabanyamo ibice bigera kuri 8 ft-4 muri (2,5 m) kugeza kuri 8 ft-6 muri (2,6 m) z'uburebure, bikwiriye gukora metero 8 (2.4 m) impapuro ndende.Ibice byibiti bizwi nkibice bya peeler.

Gukora icyerekezo

5 Mbere yuko icyuma gishobora gutemwa, ibishishwa bigomba gushyuha no gushiramo kugirango woroshye inkwi.Ibice birashobora guhumeka cyangwa kwibizwa mumazi ashyushye.Iyi nzira ifata amasaha 12-40 bitewe nubwoko bwibiti, diameter ya blok, nibindi bintu.

6 Ibishishwa bishyushye noneho bijyanwa mumisarani ya peeler, aho bihita bihuzwa bikagaburirwa mumisarani icyarimwe.Mugihe umusarani uzunguruka byihuse hafi yumurongo wawo muremure, icyuma cyuzuye cyicyuma gikuramo urupapuro rwikurikiranya ruvuye hejuru yikizunguruka ku kigero cya 300-800 ft / min (90-240 m / min).Iyo umurambararo wa diametre ugabanutse kugera kuri 3-4 muri (230-305 mm), igiti gisigaye, kizwi ku izina rya peeler core, gisohoka mu musarani hanyuma igaburo rishya rikagaburirwa ahantu.

Urupapuro rurerure rwumuvuduko ruva muri / umusarani wa peeler urashobora gutunganywa ako kanya, cyangwa urashobora kubikwa mumurongo muremure, urwego rwinshi cyangwa igikomere kumuzingo.Ibyo ari byo byose, inzira ikurikira irimo gukata umuyaga mubugari bwakoreshwa, mubisanzwe nka 4 ft-6 muri (1,4 m), kugirango ukore impapuro zisanzwe za metero 4 z'ubugari.Muri icyo gihe, scaneri ya optique ireba ibice bifite inenge zitemewe, kandi ibyo byaciwe, hasigara munsi yubugari busanzwe bwa veneer.

11

Ibice bitose bya veneer bikomerekejwe mumuzingo, mugihe scaneri optique ibona inenge zose zitemewe mubiti.Bimaze gukama icyuma gitondekwa kandi kigashyirwa hamwe.Ibice byatoranijwe bya veneer bifatanye hamwe.Imashini ishyushye ikoreshwa mu gufunga icyuma mu gice kimwe gikomeye cya pani, kizagabanywa kandi kigasandara mbere yo gushyirwaho kashe hamwe nicyiciro gikwiye.

8 Ibice bya venire noneho bitondekanya kandi bigashyirwa hamwe ukurikije amanota.Ibi birashobora gukorwa nintoki, cyangwa birashobora gukorwa mu buryo bwikora ukoresheje scaneri ya optique.

9 Ibice byatoranijwe bigaburirwa byumye kugirango bigabanye ubushuhe kandi bibemerera kugabanuka mbere yuko bifatanyirizwa hamwe.Amashanyarazi menshi akoresha imashini yumisha aho ibice bigenda bikomeza binyuze mucyumba gishyushye.Mu byuma bimwe, indege yumuvuduko mwinshi, umwuka ushyushye uhuha hejuru yibice kugirango byihute.

10 Mugihe ibice bya venire biva mu cyuma, byegeranye ukurikije amanota.Ibice bitagira ingano bifite ibyongeweho byongeweho kuri kaseti cyangwa kole kugirango bikore ibice bikwiriye gukoreshwa murwego rwimbere aho isura n'imbaraga bidafite akamaro.

11 Ibyo bice bya veneer bizashyirwaho inzira nyabagendwa-intandaro mumpapuro eshatu, cyangwa imirongo yambukiranya impapuro eshanu-zaciwe muburebure bwa metero 4 -3 muri (1,3 m).

Gukora impapuro

12 Iyo ibice byabigenewe byakusanyirijwe hamwe kugirango bikore neza ya firime, inzira yo gushira no gufatira hamwe ibice iratangira.Ibi birashobora gukorwa nintoki cyangwa igice-cyikora hamwe nimashini.Mugihe cyoroshye cyane cyimpapuro eshatu, icyuma cyinyuma gishyizwe hejuru kandi kinyuzwa mumashanyarazi, koresha urwego rwa kole hejuru.Ibice bigufi byimyitozo ngororamubiri noneho bigashyirwa kumihanda hejuru yometse inyuma, kandi urupapuro rwose rukoreshwa mukwirakwiza kole inshuro ya kabiri.Hanyuma, isura yo mumaso ishyirwa hejuru yiziritse, kandi urupapuro rwuzuyemo andi mabati ategereje kujya mubinyamakuru.

13 Impapuro zometseho zipakiye mumashini menshi afungura.imashini zishobora gukora impapuro 20-40 icyarimwe, hamwe na buri rupapuro rwapakiwe ahantu hatandukanye.Iyo impapuro zose zipakiye, imashini irayikanda hamwe munsi yumuvuduko wa 110-200 psi (akabari 7.6-13.8), mugihe kimwe ubashyushya ubushyuhe bwa dogere 230-315 ° F (109.9-157.2 ° C).Umuvuduko wizeza umubano mwiza hagati yuburyo bwa veneer, kandi ubushyuhe butera kole gukira neza kubwimbaraga nini.Nyuma yigihe cyiminota 2-7, imashini irakingurwa kandi impapuro zirapakururwa.

14 Amabati atambutse noneho anyura mumurongo wibiti, ubigereranya nubugari bwanyuma nuburebure.Impapuro zo mu rwego rwo hejuru zinyura mumurongo wa metero 1,2 z'ubugari bwumukandara, umusenyi haba mumaso ninyuma.Impapuro zo hagati ziciriritse zandikishijwe intoki kugirango zisukure ahantu habi.Amabati amwe akoreshwa mumurongo wizenguruko uzengurutswe, uca ibiti bitobito mumaso kugirango pani igaragare neza.Nyuma yubugenzuzi bwa nyuma, inenge zose zisigaye zirasanwa.

15 Impapuro zuzuye zashyizweho kashe-yerekana ikirango giha abaguzi amakuru yerekeye igipimo cyerekana, amanota, inomero, nibindi bintu.Impapuro zo murwego rumwe-ikirangantego zomekeranye hamwe hanyuma zimurirwa mububiko kugirango zitegereze koherezwa.

Kugenzura ubuziranenge

Nka hamwe nimbaho, ntakintu kimeze nkigice cyiza cya pani.Ibice byose bya pani bifite inenge runaka.Umubare hamwe n’aho inenge igena urwego rwa pani.Ibipimo byubwubatsi na firime yinganda bisobanurwa nibicuruzwa bisanzwe PS1 byateguwe na Biro yigihugu yubuziranenge hamwe n’ishyirahamwe ry’abanyamerika Plywood.Ibipimo byamafiriti yimbaho ​​nudushusho bisobanurwa na ANSIIHPMA HP yateguwe nikigo cyigihugu gishinzwe ubuziranenge muri Amerika hamwe n’ishyirahamwe ry’abakora ibihingwa bya Hardwood.Ibipimo ntabwo bishyiraho sisitemu yo gutondekanya gusa pani, ahubwo inagaragaza ubwubatsi, imikorere, nibisabwa.

Kazoza

Nubwo pani ikoresha neza ibiti-cyane cyane kubitandukanya no kubisubiza hamwe muburyo bukomeye, bwakoreshwa-haracyari imyanda myinshi irangwa mubikorwa byo gukora.Mubihe byinshi, hafi 50-75% gusa yubunini bwakoreshwa mubiti mugiti bihinduka pani.Kunoza iyi shusho, ibicuruzwa byinshi bishya biri gutezwa imbere.

Igicuruzwa kimwe gishya cyitwa icyerekezo cyerekanwe, gikozwe mugucamo ibiti byose mumigozi, aho gukuramo icyuma kiva mumigiti no guta intangiriro.Imigozi ivanze nigiti gifatanye kandi kigabanijwemo ibice hamwe nintete zigenda mucyerekezo kimwe.Ibice bifunitse noneho byerekanwe kumpande iburyo kuri mugenzi we, nka pani, kandi bigahuzwa hamwe.Icyerekezo cyerekezo cyerekezo kirakomeye nka pande kandi kigura make.


Igihe cyo kohereza: Kanama-10-2021

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